We talk about infertility, or rather infertility of a couple in the absence of pregnancy after 12 to 24 months of complete sexual intercourse, regular (two to three times a week) and without contraception. Some causes, more numerous and better known in women than men, explain infertility.
WHAT IS INFERTILITY OR INFERTILITY?
For a fertile couple aged 25 years, the monthly probability of naturally obtaining a pregnancy is 25%. It is therefore quite normal for a few months to be necessary to obtain a pregnancy spontaneously. After a year of non-contraceptive attempts, 18% to 24% of couples remain childless.
Therefore, we talk about infertility, or rather infertility of a couple when a pregnancy is not obtained after 12 to 24 months of complete sexual intercourse, regular (two to three times a week) and without contraception.
Fertility decreases with age:
- In women: the risk of not getting a child (without medical help) increases as her age grows. At age 25, it is in the order of 5%. It reaches 10% to 30 years, 20% to 35 years and 50% to 40 years.
- Paternal age is also associated with a decrease in spontaneous fertility, but there is however no specific threshold for the age of the father.
Infertility is generally due to:
- a female problem in a third of the cases,
- a male problem also in a third of the cases,
- a mixed fertility problem for both members of the couple.
- It also happens that infertility remains unexplained (about 15% of cases).
A couple of seven consults during their lifetime for an infertility problem, and one in ten couples follow a treatment to remedy their infertility.
What are the obstructive and mechanical causes of female infertility?
Obstruction of Fallopian tubes: a major cause of female infertility.
This total or partial obstruction, also called “tuary obstruction”, follows:
-of salpingites, as a result of sexually transmitted infections,
Mechanical barriers at the uterus level.
Various mechanical obstacles can cause infertility in women:
-sequelae at the cervical level after conization for cervical cancer,
-abnormalities of cervical mucus quality or incompatibility between cervical mucus and sperm,
-congenital malformations (e.g. cloisonne uterus),
Endometriosis is a common cause of infertility.
The existence of more or less numerous outbreaks of endometriosis often localized at the level of the isthmus of the uterus, but also in the peritony or the ovaries can be responsible for infertility.