Changes or mutations in DNA can cause normal breast cells to become cancer. Certain DNA changes are passed on from parents (inherited) and can greatly increase your risk for breast cancer. Other lifestyle-related risk factors, such as what you eat and how much you exercise, can increase your chance of developing breast cancer, but it’s not yet known exactly how some of these risk factors cause normal cells to become cancer. Hormones seem to play a role in many cases of breast cancer, but just how this happens is not fully understood.
Inherited versus acquired DNA mutations
Normal breast cells become cancer because of changes (mutations) in DNA. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes. Genes have the instructions for how our cells function. Some DNA mutations are inherited or passed to you from your parents. This means the mutations are in your cells when you are born and some mutations can greatly increase the risk of certain cancers. They cause many of the cancers that run in some families and often cause cancer when people are younger.
But most DNA changes linked to breast cancer are acquired. This means the change takes place in breast cells during a person’s life rather than having been inherited or born with them. Acquired DNA changes take place over time and are only in the breast cancer cells.
Mutated DNA can lead to mutated genes. Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die. Changes in these genes can cause the cells to lose normal control and are linked to cancer.
Proto-oncogenes are genes that help cells grow normally. When a proto-oncogene mutates (changes) or there are too many copies of it, it becomes a “bad” gene that can stay turned on or activated when it’s not supposed to be. When this happens, the cell grows out of control and makes more cells that grow out of control. This can lead to cancer. This bad gene is called an oncogene.
Think of a cell as a car. For the car to work properly, there need to be ways to control how fast it goes. A proto-oncogene normally functions in a way that’s much like a gas pedal. It helps control how and when the cell grows and divides. An oncogene is like a gas pedal that’s stuck down, which causes the cell to divide out of control.
Tumor suppression genes
Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that slow down cell division (cell growth), repair DNA mistakes, or tell cells when to die (a process known as apoptosis or programmed cell death). When tumor suppressor genes don’t work properly, cells can grow out of control, make more cells that grow out of control, and don’t die when they should, which can lead to cancer.
A tumor suppressor gene is like the brake pedal on a car. It normally keeps the cell from dividing too quickly, just as a brake keeps a car from going too fast. When something goes wrong with the gene, such as a mutation, the “brakes” don’t work and cell division can get out of control.
Inherited gene changes
Certain inherited DNA mutations (changes) can dramatically increase the risk for developing certain cancers and are linked to many of the cancers that run in some families. For instance, the BRCA genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are tumor suppressor genes. When one of these genes changes, it no longer suppresses abnormal cell growth, and cancer is more likely to develop. A change in one of these genes can be passed from a parent to a child.
Women have already begun to benefit from advances in understanding the genetic basis of breast cancer. Genetic testing can identify some women who have inherited mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes (or less commonly in other genes such as PALB2, ATM or CHEK2). These women can then take steps to reduce their risk of breast cancer and make plans to look for changes in their breasts to help find cancer at an earlier, more treatable stage.Since these mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes are also associated with other cancers (besides breast), women with these mutations can also consider early screening and preventive actions for other cancers.
Mutations in tumor suppressor genes like the BRCA genes are considered “high penetrance” because they often lead to cancer. Although many women with high penetrance mutations develop cancer, most cases of cancer (including breast cancer) are not caused by this kind of mutation.
More often, low-penetrance mutations or gene variations are a factor in cancer development. Each of these may have a small effect on cancer occurring in any one person, but the overall effect on the population can be large because the mutations are common, and people often have more than one at the same time. The genes involved can affect things like hormone levels, metabolism, or other things that impact risk factors for breast cancer. These genes may cause much of the risk of breast cancer that runs in families.
Acquired gene changes
Most DNA mutations related to breast cancer take place in breast cells during a woman’s life rather than having been inherited. These acquired mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes may result from other factors, like radiation or cancer-causing chemicals. But so far, the causes of most acquired mutations that could lead to breast cancer are still unknown. Most breast cancers have several acquired gene mutations.
Tests to spot acquired gene changes may help doctors more accurately predict the outlook (prognosis) for some women with breast cancer. For example, tests can identify women whose breast cancer cells have too many copies of the HER2 oncogene. These cancers tend to grow and spread faster. There are drugs that target these cancer cell changes and improve outcomes for patients.