Dental plaque is the main cause of gum disease.
Plaque is a coating of salivary proteins, food waste (sugar and acids) and bacteria. This white-colored sticky coating is depositing on the surface of the teeth and gums. The bacteria multiply and cause the intensification of the dental plaque which, by calcifiant, constitutes the tartar. It adheres to the surface of the teeth and can, in the long run, lead to a chronic infection.
Dental plaque is promoted by insufficient oral hygiene. It can easily be eliminated by regular brushing of the teeth at least twice a day.
Other factors increase the risk of developing gingivitis:
Smoking: Tobacco consumption acts on dental pathologist by suppressing the immune response to infections and promoting the degeneration of periodontal disease. In the case of periodontists, bone loss is more important in smokers than in non-smokers.
Cigarette smoke contributes to the destruction of periodontal by decreasing the intake of oxygen and nutrients at the oral cavity as well as the vascularization of the gums.
The increase in temperature promotes bacterial contamination.
Nicotine is depositing on the root surface of the teeth reducing the adhesion capacity of the tooth support tissues. It aggravates periodontal inflammation (gingivitis).
Diabetes: Diabetes is a recognized risk factor for periodontal diseases and conversely, gum disease is involved in insulin imbalance.
Hyperglycemia promotes the growth of dental plaque bacteria that destroy the connective tissue of the gums.
In parallel, chronic inflammation of gum disease induces an insulin-resistance that contributes to hyperglycemia.
The reduction of the body’s defenses: a weakening of the immune system in certain pathologies (immuno-suppressant treatments, cancers, HIV infection…), periods of fatigue or stress encourage the development of bacteria to The origin of gingivitis.
Some medications: taking certain medications (e.g. anticancer chemotherapy) by causing dryness of the mouth can lead to the development of gum disease.
Hormonal changes, in women, at puberty, during pregnancy or menopause.
During pregnancy, elevated progesterone levels induce general vasodilation, resulting in increased susceptibility of the mucous membranes of the mouth to bacterial aggression. This promotes the appearance of gingivitis and the development of periodontal diseases. Periodontal infection is then a risk factor for preterm delivery or small-weight babies.
Alcohol or drug use: alcohol increases the risk of periodontal. Associated with tobacco, this risk is aggravated. The consumption of cannabis causes gingivitis.
In a more occasional way, gum disease may also originate:
Heredity: In some cases, there is a genetic predisposition to gum disease.
Vitamin C or calcium deficiency: it intervenes on bone mineralization by accelerating the uncompensated bone resorption by bone remodeling.
Local factors such as coronary fillings or poorly adapted dental prosthetic crowns, dental depositions or gum wounds due to too vigorous brushing, for example, may cause gingivitis.
Advice from a dental surgeon or stomatologist doctor is recommended to diagnose and investigate the cause of gum disease.
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